Lifestyle – less dependence on glasses and contact lenses, stable prescription
Long-term Ocular Health – high myopes are more likely to be diagnosed with retinal breaks and detachments, glaucoma, macular neovascularization, and choroidal atrophy later in life
United States (Age 12-54)
1971-1972 – 25% of population myopic
1999-2004 – 41.6% of population myopic
Increase of 62% over 30 years
5,060 Chinese University Students (Shanghai) – 2012
95.5% myopic, 19.9% greater than -6.00 D (high myopia)
South Korean Military Candidates – 19 year olds – 2012
Genetics (30%) – ethnicity, family inheritance
Environment (70%) – time outdoors, lack of blue light, near work, peripheral defocus
Time Outdoors/Blue Light – 2 hours/day outdoors
Children that spend more time outdoors (exposed to entire visible spectrum of light – including blue light) are less likely to become myopic, and myopic children progress less rapidly with more time outdoors
Diet – Metabolic Syndrome
The increase in processed foods/added sugars in our diets has resulted in increased insulin in the blood stream, which affects growth receptors in the sclera
Visual Correction Options to control the way light is focused at the back of the eye
1. Accelerated Orthokeratology (AOK)
Gentle re-shaping of the cornea (front surface of the eye) to provide clear vision – an AOK lens is inserted before bed, worn overnight and removed in the morning. Achieves peripheral defocus, while providing clear vision throughout the day.
50%+ slowing of progression
Recent modifications to the size of treatment zone of the lens have shown that the rate of slowing can be improved even further (50%+ slowing)
2. Soft 1-Day Contact Lens
A soft, daily contact lens is worn during the day to provide clear vision and peripheral defocus.
~45-50% slowing of progression
3. Atropine Therapy (0.01%) – Eye Drop
Small dosage of atropine used before bed every night.
Mechanism of action and effect on axial length not greatly understood at this time, more studies ongoing at this time.
~45-50% slowing of progression
4. MyoVision Lens – Specialty Lens for Spectacles
A spectacle (glasses) lens that achieves peripheral defocus.
~30% slowing of progression (scientific evidence not strong – limited studies)
5. Executive Bifocal
Peripheral defocus achieved by a large bifocal segment in glasses.
6. Undercorrection or No Glasses
Does not slow myopia – not a viable option.
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Sun, Jing, et al. “High prevalence of myopia and high myopia in 5060 Chinese university students in Shanghai.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53.12 (2012): 7504-7509.
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Berntsen, David A., et al. “Accommodative lag and juvenile-onset myopia progression in children wearing refractive correction.” Vision research 51.9 (2011): 1039-1046
Liu, Yue M., and Peiying Xie. “The safety of orthokeratology—a systematic review.” Eye & contact lens 42.1 (2016): 35..